medical notes

Apr 18th, 2015
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Internal and external structures. Anterior abdominal wall structuresKnowledge of the layered structure of theabdominal wall allows the surgeon to enter theabdominal cavity with maximum efficiency andsafety. A general summary of these layers isprovided in Table 7.3.Borders: The abdomen's superior border is thelower edge of the rib cage (ribs 7 through 12).Inferiorly, it ends at the iliac crests, inguinalligaments, and pubic bones. It endsposterolaterally at the lumbar spine and itsadjacent muscles.SkinSubcutaneous layerCamper's fasciaScarpa's fasciaMusculoaponeurotic layerRectus sheath formed by conjoinedaponeuroses of the external oblique muscleInternal oblique muscle: fused in lower abdomenTransverse abdominal muscleTransversalis fasciaPeritoneumThe fibers in the dermal layer of the abdominal skin areoriented in a predominantly transverse direction followinga gently curving concave upward line. Between the skin and musculoaponeurotic layer of theabdominal wall lie the subcutaneous tissues. It is made ofglobules of fat held in place and supported by a series ofbranching fibrous septa. In the more superficial portion of the subcutaneous layer,called Camper's fascia, the fat predominates, and thefibrous tissue is less apparent. Closer to the rectus sheath, the fibrous tissuepredominates relative to the fat in the region known asScarpa's fascia. The two fascia are more apparent inTransverse Incisions.

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