Medicine an Surgery notes

Apr 24th, 2015
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HEPATITISDR ANN KIBIRUVIRAL HEPATITISDEFINITIONHepatitis: inflammation of the liver caused byviruses, toxic substances or immunologicalabnormalities.VIRAL HEPATITISCommon: Hepatitis A Hepatitis B +/- hepatitis D. Hepatitis C Hepatitis ELess common: Cytomegalovirus Epstein-Barr virusRare: Herpes simplex Yellow feverHEPATITIS A Mostprevalent Responsible for most forms of acute &benign hepatitis Fulminant hep. failure is rare & occursmore often in adults than in children.VIROLOGY & ETIOLOGY discovered in 1973 HAV is a 27nm, nonenveloped, icosahedral,single stranded RNA virus classified inheparnavirus genus of the picornaviridae.CONT, Host: human & other primates. Transmission: fecal-oral route. Has an incubation period of approx. Its replication is limited to the liver.4 wks.EPIDEMIOLOGY Occursworldwide Can occur sporadically or in an epidemic form. prevalent in low social economic areas(developing nations)- which lack adequatesanitation & poor hygienic practices, facilitatespread of the infectionPATHOGENESIS Replicationoccurs within cytoplasm ofhepatocytes. Hepatocellular damage & destruction of infectedhepatocytes is mediated by HLA-restricted,HAV-specific CD8+ T lympocytes & NK cells.CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS Resultsin an acute, self-ltd illness; rarely leads tofulminant hepatic failure. Fulminant HF occurs more commonly i

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