Medicine an Surgery notes

Apr 24th, 2015
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OBSTETRICS RADIOLOGY & IMAGINGULTRASOUNDFirst Trimester/Early pregnancyIntroduction:The normal non pregnant uterus is shown as an egg-shaped structure, larger at the fundus, and lying directly behind the distended bladder All pelvic ultrasound examinations should be conducted with the bladder distended as this displaces gas- containing bowel and allows uninterrupted access of the ultrasound beam to the uterus lying behind the bladder.Vaginal sonography may be necessary during the first trimester if abdominal scanning is insufficient to identify these specified components.Indications:1. Diagnosis of pregnancy;In early pregnancy the uterus enlarges and a gestation sac can be identified as early as 5-6 weeks after the first day of the last menstrual period. When the serum ?-hCG is 1800 mIU/mL, the gestational sac should be visible.It appears as a cystic area with a rim of high intensity echoes By 10 weeks the sac has enlarged to occupy most of the uterine cavity 2. Multiple pregnancies Can be identified at an early stage by the presence of two or more gestation sacs Multifetal gestation can be identified and the number of chorions determined3. Gestation age.The crown rump length of the fetal node can be measured accurately by electronic calipers between the 7th and 14th weeks of pregnancy and assessed against the normal standards for evaluation of gestation age. For determining gestational age in the first trimester, the crown-rump length is accurate

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