Medicine an Surgery notes

Apr 24th, 2015
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ANEMIA IN PREGNANCYDefinitions:Anemia in pregnancy is often defined as a hemoglobin measurement below 10 g/dL or hematocrit below 30%. Anemia in nonpregnant women is defined as hemoglobin concentration less than 12 g/dL Centers for Disease Control (1990) defined anemia as less than 11 g/dL in the first and third trimesters, and less than 10.5 g/dL in the second trimester.Any condition in which the number of red blood cells per mm3, the amount of hemoglobin in 100 ml of blood, and/or the volume of packed red blood cells per 100 ml of blood are less than normalAnemia is a significant maternal problem during pregnancy. A hemoglobin of less than 11 g/dL or a hematocrit of less than 33% should be investigated and treated to avoid blood transfusion and its related complicationsA pregnant woman will lose blood during delivery and the puerperium, and an anemic woman is therefore at increased jeopardy. Nutritional anemia is the most common form. It results from deficiency of iron, folic acid, or vitamin B12. Pernicious anemia due to vitamin B12 deficiency almost never occurs during pregnancy. Other anemias occurring during pregnancy are aplastic anemia and drug-induced hemolytic anemia.Anemia is very common in pregnancy, causing fatigue, anorexia, dyspnea, and edema.Prevention through optimal nutrition and iron and folic acid supplementation is desirable.PhysiologyWith normal pregnancy, blood volume increases, which results in a concomitant hemodilution. During pr

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