Medicine an Surgery notes

Apr 24th, 2015
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HIP DISLOCATIONSBackground-Direct force trauma (minor or major force) to the thigh is the most common cause of hip dislocation. -Hip dislocation can also be caused by congenital condition and acetabular or femoral head dysplasia. -Motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) and falls are the common causes of hip dislocation.-Patients of Downs syndrome and those with prosththetic hip joints are prone to dislocations.-Children may have a hip dislocation due to relatively minor trauma.-The annual incidence of congenital hip dislocation is approximately 2-4 cases per 1000 births, and approximately 80-85% of the affected individuals are girls -Traumatic dislocations can be described as being anterior, posterior, or central.-Often small fragments of bone are chipped off as the joint dislocates; if there is a major fragment, or comminution, it is regarded as a fracture-dislocation.Morbidity. 1. The local venous injury and prolonged immobilization associated with hip dislocations predispose to DVT and potentially lethal pulmonary embolus in affected patients.2. Osteoarthritis is a common and potentially disabling complication, occurring in 23-50% of patients.3. AVN is common, occurring in 8-13% of patients. 4. Injury to the sciatic nerve occurs in 10-14% of posterior dislocations during the initial trauma or during relocation.5. Anterior dislocations occasionally are associated with injury to the femoral artery or nerve.Age-Hip dislocations resulting from traumatic injuries (espe

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