Medicine an Surgery notes

Apr 24th, 2015
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CANCER OF THE CERVIXIntroductionEssentials of Diagnosis* Abnormal uterine bleeding and vaginal discharge.* Cervical lesion possibly visible on inspection as a tumor or ulceration; cancer within the cervical canal possibly occult.* Vaginal cytology, usually positive (must be confirmed by biopsy).General ConsiderationsCancer of the cervix is the seventh most common type of cancer after breast, colorectal, lung, endometrial, and ovarian cancer, and lymphoma.The incidence of cervical cancer has continued to decline since 1947, and partial credit can be given to aggressive screening programs.The average age at diagnosis of patients with cervical cancer is 45, but the disease can occur in the second decade of life and during pregnancy.Over 95% of patients with early cancer of the cervix can be cured.Etiology & EpidemiologyThe cause of cervical cancer is not known,Predisposing factorsSexual activity - +vely correlated.Coitus at an early age, especially within 1 year of menarche.Multiple sexual partners,Commercial sex workersRace - Cervical cancer occurs more frequently in North African women than in European and American Jewish women.It appears to be an independent risk factor in women of lower socioeconomic backgrounds.HPV types 16 and 18 are strongly associated with malignant cervical transformation. Viral DNA sequences have been found in dysplastic and malignant cells of the cervix.Other associated risk factors aretobacco use,oral contraceptive use,a histo

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