Medicine and surgery notes

Apr 24th, 2015
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HEAD INJURYDefinition: Trauma to the head causing neurological manifestations.Etiology: most common causes include motor vehicle accidents (eg, collisions between vehicles, pedestrians struck by motor vehicles, bicycle accidents), falls, assaults, sports-related injuries, and penetrating trauma.The male-to-female ratio for TBI is nearly 2:1, and TBI is much more common in persons younger than 35 years.CLASSIFICATION OF HEAD INJURIES.Head injuries can be classified according to.1. Severity of the injury.2. Anatomical classification3. Pathological classification-penetrating or blunt injury4. Primary and secondary brain injury.A. SEVERITY OF INJURYSeverity is assessed by the following methods notably:Glasgow Coma Scale. Score below 8 is considered to represent severe head injury while 8 to 12 is assessed as moderate head injury. 13 to 15 is mild head injury. B. ANATOMICAL CLASSIFICATIONInjury can involve one or more of the following.1 SCALP This consists of five layers; the first three layers are bound together and moved as a unit. The layers are:S -Skin C -Connective tissue: DenseThis is a fibro-fatty layer. The fibrous septa unite the skin to the underlying aponeurosis of the fronto-occipitalis muscle. The scalp vessels lie within this layer.A- Aponeurosis of Galea This is a thin fibrous sheath attached to the bellies of the Fronto-occipitalis muscle. Deep to it is the sub aponeurotic space.L- Loose connective(areolar) layer-Occupying the sub aponeuroti

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