Medicine and surgery notes

Apr 24th, 2015
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TUBERCULOSIS TREATMENTVarious pharmaceutical tuberculosis treatments and their actions. Active tuberculosis will kill about two of every three people affected if left untreated. Treated tuberculosis has a mortality rate of less than 5%.The standard "short" course treatment for tuberculosis (TB) is isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol for two months, then isoniazid and rifampicin alone for a further four months. The patient is considered cured at six months (although there is still a relapse rate of 2 to 3%). For latent tuberculosis, the standard treatment is six to nine months of isoniazid alone.Drugs;First line tuberculosis drugs; Ethambutol (EMB / E) Isoniazid (INH / H)Pyrazinamide (PZA / Z) Rifampicin (RMP / R) Streptomycin (STM / S) Second line;There are six classes of second-line drugs (SLDs) used for the treatment of tuberculosis. A drug may be classed as second-line instead of first-line for one of two possible reasons:It may be less effective than the first-line drugs (e.g., p-aminosalicylic acid); It may have toxic side-effects (e.g., Cycloserine); It may be unavailable in many developing countries (e.g., fluoroquinolones): Second line drugs include;Aminoglycosides: e.g., amikacin (AMK), kanamycin (KM); Polypeptides: e.g., capreomycin, viomycin, enviomycin; Fluoroquinolones: e.g., ciprofloxacin (CIP), levofloxacin, moxifloxacin (MXF); Thioamides: e.g. ethionamide, prothionamide Cycloserine (the only antibiotic in its

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