Medicine an Surgery notes

Apr 24th, 2015
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CANCER OF THE CERVIXEpidemiology Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancerrelated morbidity and mortality among women in developingcountries Global incidence and mortality rates are disparate. This discrepancy is largely due to the widespread institution ofcervical cancer prevention programs in developed countries,which are essentially non-existent in many developing countries The occurrence of invasive cervical cancer is related to age, witha mean age at diagnosis of 47 years in the United States. The average age at diagnosis of patients with cervical cancer is51 years. However, the disease can occur in the second decade of lifeand during pregnancy.Risk factors The epidemiologic risk factors for CIN are similar to those forcervical cancer and include:1. Early onset of sexual activity2. Multiple sexual partners3. High-risk sexual partner e.g. Promiscuous sexual activity History of multiple sexual partners, Sexual exposure to a partner with human papillomavirusinfection Lower genital tract neoplasia Prior sexual exposure to someone with cervical neoplasia4. History of STDs (e.g. Chlamydia trachomatis, herpes simplexvirus)5. Cigarette smoking6. Immunodeficiency/immunosuppression7. Multiparity/high parity8. Long-term oral contraceptive pill use9. Low socioeconomic status10.Previous history of vulvar or vaginal squamousdysplasiaEtiology Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are a prime etiolog

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