Medicine an Surgery notes

Apr 24th, 2015
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OVARIAN CANCEREpidemiologyOvarian cancer is the fifth most common cancer in women and the fifth most frequent cause of cancer death.Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) can occur in females as young as 15 years, but the mean age is 56 years.The risk of EOC is increased in women who have not had children and possibly those with early menarche or late menopause. Two theories attempt to explain this. The incessant ovulation theory suggests that repeated ovarian epithelial trauma caused by follicular rupture and subsequent epithelial repair results in genetic alterations within the surface epithelium. The gonadotropin theory proposes that persistent stimulation of the ovaries by gonadotropins, coupled with local effects of endogenous hormones, increases surface epithelial proliferation and subsequent mitotic activityMalignant lesions of the ovaries include primary lesions arising from normal structures within the ovary and secondary lesions from cancers arising elsewhere in the body. Primary lesions include epithelial ovarian carcinoma (70% of all ovarian malignancies), germ-cell tumors, sex-cord stromal tumors, and other more rare types. Metastases to the ovaries are relatively frequent, with the most common being from the endometrium, breast, colon, stomach, and cervixApproximately 1 in 70 newborn girls will develop ovarian cancer during her lifetime. In general, ovarian cancer is a disease of the postmenopausal woman and the prepubescent (Immediately prior to the comm

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