Medicine an Surgery notes

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NUTRITIONALREQUIREMENTS ININFANCY AND CHILDHOODBy Mrs Peninah MasiboDepartment of Human Nutritionand Dietetics, FHSIntroductionMany changes in terms of rapid growth anddevelopment within the 1st two yearssignificantly affect nutritionE.g weight gain, length, Tissue growth, totalbody fatNutrient needsReflects growth rates energy expendedin activity and Basal Metabolic needs.Nitrogen from Protein - formation ofnew tissue, maturation andmaintenanceRecommendedEnergy115kcal/kg 6 monthsProtein1.6g/100kcal-birth to 4months105kcal/kg second 6months1.4g/100kcal-4-12months100kcal/kg age 1-3years1.2g/kg/day-12-36monthsRecommended.Fats 30-54% ofcaloriesCarbohydrate-supply30-60% of caloriesVitamins and MineralsCalcium 360-540mg/day(infants); 800mg/day(childhood)Iron-10mg/day in 1st 6months15mg/day up to 3 yearsVitamins-A (420ug/day infants);400 childhoodIN HIVMalnutrition in HIV progressive lean body massdepletion, increased nutrient needs, decreased foodintake, altered digestion, absorption and metabolism.Increased nutrient needs; macro (energy and protein)and micro (vitamins A, E, B6, B12; iron, zinc, copper)Identifying MalnutritionA.Anthropometrybasic data-weight,height/length, age, sex; MUAC and skinfoldThickness (Biceps, triceps, sub scapular, Suprailliac)Related to the reference population(NCHS/WHO) by stan

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