Medicine an Surgery notes

Apr 24th, 2015
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PMTCT Definitions:Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is when an HIV positive woman passes the virus to her baby. This can occur during pregnancy, labour and delivery, or breastfeeding.PMTCT is prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection.Epidemiology:Overall incidence without intervention is 20 to 40% distributed over:Antenatal period The labor and delivery periodBreastfeedingWithout treatment, around 15-30% of babies born to HIV positive women will become infected with HIV during pregnancy and delivery. A further 5-20% will become infected through breastfeedingWithout breast feeding, 30% of MTCT occurs during pregnancy and 70% at labor and delivery. Overall VT:15 - 25%-Non breast feeding25 - 45%-Breast feedingOf these:60 - 70%-intrapartum30%-intrauterine during 3rd trimester10%-postpartumIn 2007, around 370,000 children under 15 became infected with HIV, mainly through mother-to-child transmission. About 90% of these MTCT infections occurred in Africa where AIDS is beginning to reverse decades of steady progress in child survival.Etiology:Perinatal transmission (MTCT)During pregnancyDuring labor and deliveryDuring breastfeedingEffective prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) requires a three-fold strategy.Preventing HIV infection among prospective parentsAvoiding unwanted pregnancies among HIV positive womenPreventing the transmission of HIV from HIV positive mothers to their infants during pregnanc

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