Medicine an Surgery notes

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CONTRACEPTION & FAMILY PLANNINGIndividual Indications for Birth ControlContraception is practiced by most couples for personal reasons. Many couples use contraception to space their children or to limit the size of their family.Others desire to avoid childbearing because of the effects of preexisting illness on the pregnancy, such as severe diabetes, or heart disease, such as severe aortic stenosis.As a matter of public policy some countries, especially those that are less developed, promote contraception in an effort to curb undesired population growth.Methods of contraceptionThe available methods of contraception may be classified in many ways. For the sake of this discussion, traditional or folk methods are coitus interruptus, postcoital douche, lactational amenorrhea, and periodic abstinence (rhythm or natural family planning).Barrier methods include condoms (male and female), diaphragm, cervical cap, vaginal sponge, and spermicidesHormonal methods encompass oral contraceptives and injectable or implantable long-acting progestins. In addition, the intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) and sterilization (tubal ligation or vasectomy) contraceptive armamentarium.A. PERIODIC ABSTINENCE1. Coitus InterruptusDefinitionCoitus interruptus involves withdrawal of the entire penis from the vagina before ejaculation. Fertilization is prevented by lack of contact between spermatozoa and the ovum. EfficacyEffectiveness depends largely on the man's capab

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