Medicine an Surgery notes

Apr 24th, 2015
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PRE- CANCEROUS & CANCEROUS LESIONS OF THE CERVIXOVERVIEWHistory400 BC - Hippocrates: cervical cancer incurable1925 - Hinselmann: invented colposcope1928 - Papanicolaou: developed Papanicolaou technique1941 - Papanicolaou and Trout: Pap smear screening1946 - Ayer: Aylesbury spatula to scrape the cervix, collecting sample for Pap smear1951 - First successful in-vitro cell line, Hela, derived from biopsy of cervical cancer of Henrietta Lacks 1976 - Zur Hausen and Gisam: found HPV DNA in cervical cancer and warts1988 - Bethesda System for reporting Pap results developed2006 - First HPV vaccine FDA approvedIn Kenya (Nairobi cancer registry):Commonest reproductive tract cancers in females are cervix (23%) & breast (20%) In males prostate (24%) followed by breast cancerGlobally, a WHO database indicates that:Every year 2,354 women in Kenya aged 15-65 develop cervical cancer (Ca cervix)About 65% (1,524) of these women die from the diseaseEstimated standardized incidence for cervical cancer in Kenya is 36.56 per 100,000 women or nearly 3,000 women per year Many of these common cancers a public health concern because theyare potentially preventable through primary prevention can be detected early & treatedThe incidence of cervical cancer in Kenya, like other developing countries markedly high due to: relative lack of effective screening programslack of treatment facilities for pre-cancerous & early cancerous conditionslack of awareness among women & communi

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