Medicine an Surgery notes

Apr 24th, 2015
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LABORATORY TESTING OF HIVINFECTIONObjectives of HIV TestingThe main reasons why laboratory tests for HIVinfection are performed are Diagnosis request for laboratory diagnosismay occur as:1. Voluntary testing of a symptomaticindividuals.2. Testing of individuals with clinical signs orsymptoms suggestive of HIV infection or aids.These may include self referred individuals andindividuals referred by medical professionals.3. Testing after accidental e.g. occupationalexposure.Transfusion and transplant safety thisinvolves screening of donor for bloodand blood products, tissue and organs,sperm or ova.To prevent transmission from mother tochild.Surveillance whose aim is to monitorprevalence of and trends in HIVinfection over a period of time or in aspecific population (sentinelsurveillance).SEROLOGICAL TESTS FOR HIVINFECTIONHIV ImmunoassaysMost individuals produce detectable antibodies todifferent HIV antigens following exposure. Theseantigens include Envelope proteins(I) GP 160(II) GP 120(III) GP 41 Viral enzymes(I) Reverse transcriptase(II) Intergrase Gag and gag-derived proteins(I) P 55(II) P 24(III) P 18(IV) P 7The HIV antibodies are usually detectable between3 weeks and 3 months after exposure. In very rarecases there may be a lag period of more than 3 yrsbefore the appearance of antibodies.Antibodies against P24, GP 160 and GP 41 areusually the first to be produced during the

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