Medicine an Surgery notes

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ECTOPIC PREGNANCYDefinition:Ectopic pregnancy is derived from the Greek word ektopos, meaning out of place, and it refers to the implantation of a fertilized egg in a location outside of the uterine cavity, including the fallopian tubes, cervix, ovary, cornual region of the uterus, and the abdominal cavity. This abnormally implanted gestation grows and draws its blood supply from the site of abnormal implantation. As the gestation enlarges, it creates the potential for organ rupture because only the uterine cavity is designed to expand and accommodate fetal development. Ectopic pregnancy can lead to massive hemorrhage, infertility, or death.It is the result of a flaw in human reproductive physiology that allows the conceptus to implant and mature outside the endometrial cavity, which ultimately ends in death of the fetus.EpidemiologyMore than 95% of extrauterine pregnancies occur in the fallopian tube.Since 1970, the frequency of ectopic pregnancy has increased 6-fold, and it now occurs in 2% of all pregnancies.This may be due, at least in part, to a higher incidence of salpingitis, an increase in ovulation induction, and more tubal sterilizations.Ectopic pregnancy is a significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality as well as fetal loss. Ectopic pregnancy currently is the leading cause of pregnancy-related death during the first trimester in the United States, accounting for 9% of all pregnancy-related deaths. In addition to the immediate morbidity ca

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