Medicine an Surgery notes

Apr 24th, 2015
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IV. ALCOHOLSA. Structure, classification, and Nomenclature:R Alcohols are compounds of theHRROHOHOHRgeneral formula ROH, where R is any RCCCalkyl or substituted alkyl group. Thegroup may be open-chain or cyclic; itRHHmay contain a double bond, aPrimaryhalogen, an aromatic ring, oradditional hydroxyl groups. Compounds in which a hydroxyl group is attached to a saturated carbon.Alcohols are classified as primary, secondary, or tertiary according to the kind ofcarbon that bears the -OH group.1. Nomenclature: AlcoholsCH3 Alcohols are named byCH3CHCH3 CH3OHCH3CHCH33two principal systems.CH3 CHCH2OHCWith the simpler alcoholsOHCH3the common names areEthylOHmost often used, consisAlcoholting of the name of thealkyl group followed byalcohol.IUPAC Rules, Alcohols:1. Select the longestCH3continuous carbon chain toCH3OHCH3 CH2 CHCH2OHwhich the hydroxyl isMethanoldirectly attached. Drop the-e off the alkane name, andadd -ol2. Number the longestHHcontinuous carbon chain soas to give the carbonOH OHbearing the hydroxyl groupthe lowest possible number.3. Use this number to denote the position of the hydroxyl.2. Polyhydroxy alcohols:OHOHH2COHCH2H3 CHCOHCHH2CCH2OHCH2OHEthyleneGlycolOH(1,2-Ethanediol) (1,2-Propanediol)(1,2,3-Propanetriol)1ClCH2 CH2 OHOHCompounds containing twohydroxylgroups are calledglycols or in IUPAC speak-diols:B. Physical Properties The p

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