Medicine an Surgery notes

Apr 25th, 2015
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ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTSThe terms antipsychotic and neuroleptic have been used interchangeably to denote agroup of drugs that have been used mainly for treating schizophrenia but are alsoeffective in some other psychoses and agitated states.History Antipsychotic drugs have been used in Western medicine for more than 50 years.Reserpine and chlorpromazine were the first drugs found to be useful inschizophrenia. Although chlorpromazine is still sometimes used for the treatment of psychoses,these forerunner drugs have been superseded by many newer agents. Their impact on psychiatry, howeverespecially on the treatment of schizophreniahas been enormous; The number of patients hospitalized in mental institutions hasmarkedly decreased, and schizophrenia is now recognized as a biologic illness.Nature of Psychosis & Schizophrenia The term "psychosis" denotes a variety of mental disorders. Schizophrenia is a particular kind of psychosis characterized mainly by a clearsensorium but a marked thinking disturbance with hallucinations. The pathogenesis of schizophrenia is unknown. Largely as a result of research stimulated by the discovery of antipsychotic drugs, agenetic predisposition has been proposed as a necessary but not always sufficientcondition underlying psychotic disorder. This assumption has been supported by theobserved familial incidence of schizophrenia. It is now appreciated that schizophrenia is far more complex than origi

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