Medicine an Surgery notes

Apr 25th, 2015
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SEDATIVE-HYPNOTIC DRUGS:Introduction; Assignment of a drug to the sedative-hypnotic class indicates that it is able to causesedation (with concomitant relief of anxiety) or to encourage sleep. Because there is considerable chemical variation within the group, this drugclassification is based on clinical uses rather than on similarities in chemical structure. Anxiety states and sleep disorders are common problems, and sedative-hypnoticsare widely prescribed drugs worldwide.Basic pharmacology of sedative-hypnotics; Sedative (anxiolytic) drug;An effective agent should reduce anxiety and exert a calming effect. The degree of central nervous system depression caused by a sedativeshould be minimum. Hypnotic drug;Should cause drowsiness and encourage the onset and maintenance of astate of sleep. Hypnotic effects involve graded dose-dependent depression of centralnervous system function which is a characteristic of most sedative-hypnotics. At higher doses, these sedative-hypnotics may depress respiratory andvasomotor centers in the medulla, leading to coma and death. Certain antihistaminic agents including hydroxyzine, promethazine andchlorpheniramine are also sedating. These agents commonly also exert markedeffects on the peripheral autonomic nervous system. The benzodiazepines, the barbiturates, zolpidem, zaleplon, eszopiclone, and manyother drugs bind to molecular components of the GABAA receptor in neuronal

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