Medicine an Surgery notes

Apr 25th, 2015
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GENERAL ANESTHETICSINTRODUCTION The physiologic state induced by general anesthetics typically includes analgesia,amnesia, loss of consciousness, inhibition of sensory and autonomic reflexes, andskeletal muscle relaxation. The extent to which any individual anesthetic agent can exert these effects variesdepending on the drug, the dosage, and the clinical situation. An ideal anesthetic drug would induce loss of consciousness smoothly and rapidly,while allowing for prompt recovery of cognitive function after its administration isdiscontinued. The drug would also possess a wide margin of safety and be devoid of adverseeffects. No single anesthetic agent is capable of achieving all of these desirable effectswithout some disadvantages when used alone. The modern practice of anesthesiology most commonly involves the use ofcombinations of intravenous and inhaled drugs, taking advantage of their individualfavorable properties while minimizing their adverse reactions. The anesthetic technique will vary according to the proposed type of diagnostic,therapeutic, or surgical intervention. For minor procedures, oral or parenteral sedatives may be used in conjunction withlocal anesthetics .These techniques provide profound analgesia, but with retention ofthe patient's ability to maintain a patent airway and to respond to verbal commands. For more extensive surgical procedures, anesthesia frequently includes preoperativebenzodiazepines,

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