Medicine an Surgery notes

Apr 25th, 2015
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ANTISEIZURE DRUGS Seizures are finite episodes of brain dysfunction resulting from abnormaldischarge of cerebral neurons. The causes of seizures are many and include the full range of neurologicdiseasesfrom infection to neoplasm and head injury. In some subgroups,heredity has proved to be a predominant factor. The antiseizure drugs are also used in patients with febrile seizures or withseizures occurring as part of an acute illness such as meningitis. The term"epilepsy" is not usually applied to such patients unless chronic seizuresdevelop later. Seizures are occasionally caused by an acute underlying toxic or metabolicdisorder, in which case appropriate therapy should be directed toward the specificabnormality, eg, hypocalcemia. In most cases of epilepsy, however, the choice of medication depends on theempiric seizure classification. Existing antiseizure drugs provide adequate seizure control in about two thirds ofpatients. A fraction of the epileptic population is resistant to all available drugs.Drug Development for Epilepsy For a long time it was assumed that a single drug could be developed for thetreatment of all forms of epilepsy, but the causes of epilepsy are extremelydiverse, encompassing genetic and developmental defects and infective,traumatic, neoplastic, and degenerative disease processes. Drug therapy to date shows little evidence of etiologic specificity. There is, however, some specificity according

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