Medicine an Surgery notes

Apr 25th, 2015
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AGENTS USED IN ANEMIAS; HEMATOPOIETICGROWTH FACTORS:Introduction Hematopoiesis is the production from undifferentiated stem cells of circulatingerythrocytes, platelets, and leukocytes. The hematopoietic machinery resides primarily in the bone marrow in adultsand requires a constant supply of three essential nutrientsiron, vitamin B12,and folic acidas well as the presence of hematopoietic growth factors(proteins that regulate the proliferation and differentiation of hematopoieticcells). Inadequate supplies of either the essential nutrients or the growth factorsresult in anemia, thrombocytopenia and neutropenia.Agents Used in Anemias1) AnaemiaIronVitamin B12Folic acid2) Haematopoietic Growth Factors;Erythropoietin (epoetin alfa)Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)Interleukin-11 (IL-11)Thrombopoietin (still in development).IRONBasic Pharmacology Iron deficiency is the most common cause of chronic anemia. Like other formsof chronic anemia, iron deficiency anemia leads to pallor, fatigue, dizziness,exertional dyspnea, and other generalized symptoms of tissue hypoxia. Iron forms the nucleus of the iron-porphyrin heme ring, which together withglobin chains forms hemoglobin. Hemoglobin reversibly binds oxygen and provides the critical mechanism foroxygen delivery from the lungs to other tissues. In the absence o

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