Medicine an Surgery notes

Apr 25th, 2015
Studypool Tutor
Price: $10 USD

Tutor description

Word Count: 7127
Showing Page: 1/97
CANCER CHEMOTHERAPY:INTRODUCTION Cancer is a disease characterized by a shift in the control mechanisms that governcell survival, proliferation, and differentiation.Cancer arises through a series of somatic alterations in DNA that result inunrestrained cellular proliferation. Most of these alterations involve actual sequencechanges in DNA (i.e., mutations).The genes most affected include oncogenes, tumour suppressor genes and genesinvolved in apoptosis (programmed cell death). The mechanisms of damage to thesegenes are the causative factors of cancer aetiology. Cells that have undergone neoplastic transformation usually express cell surfaceantigens that may be of normal fetal type, may display other signs of apparentimmaturity Such cells proliferate excessively and form local tumors that can compress or invadeadjacent normal structures.Oncogenes and proliferationOncogenes; These are also referred to as cancer genes. There are two major classes of cancer genes. The first class comprises genes thatdirectly affect cell growth either positively (oncogenes) or negatively (tumor-suppressorgenes). When these genes are activated in an uncontrolled manner, they lead to malignanttransformation of cells. They are initially present as proto-oncogenes (i.e. Precancer genes) until a mutationchanges them into active oncogenes. The oncogenes are involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and mutations andmakes them indep

Review from student

Studypool Student
" Excellent job "
Ask your homework questions. Receive quality answers!

Type your question here (or upload an image)

1821 tutors are online

Brown University





1271 Tutors

California Institute of Technology




2131 Tutors

Carnegie Mellon University




982 Tutors

Columbia University





1256 Tutors

Dartmouth University





2113 Tutors

Emory University





2279 Tutors

Harvard University





599 Tutors

Massachusetts Institute of Technology



2319 Tutors

New York University





1645 Tutors

Notre Dam University





1911 Tutors

Oklahoma University





2122 Tutors

Pennsylvania State University





932 Tutors

Princeton University





1211 Tutors

Stanford University





983 Tutors

University of California





1282 Tutors

Oxford University





123 Tutors

Yale University





2325 Tutors