Medicine an Surgery notes

Apr 25th, 2015
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NUTRITIONAL ANEMIASDR. APONDIOBJECTIVESSources of iron,folate and vit b12Pathophysiology of the nutritional anemiasClinical presentationLaboratory findingsTreatmentDEFINITIONS Anemia-a reduction in one or more of the major redblood cell (RBC) measurements: HB, HCT, orRBC count.-reduced absolute number of circulating red blood cells Nutritional anemia- anemia resulting frominadequate diatery intake of iron,folate or vitB12.CAUSES OF ANEMIA- kinetic approach decreased RBC production (e.g nutritionalanemia), increased RBC destruction, blood lossRBC LIFE CYCLEErythropoiesis :within the BM under influence of EPO.EPO : produced in the kidney, enhances growth and differentiation of erythroid progenitors intonormoblasts.Normoblasts extrude their nucleus but retain aribosomal network (reticulocyte).The reticulocyte last 4 days , 3 in the marrow and 1 day in the peripheral bloodThe resulting mature RBC circulates for 110 to 120 days,then removed from circulation by macrophagesRBC LIFE CYCLE Under steady conditions, RBC production equalsloss. Reticulocytes in the circulation for 1 day then losetheir reticulum (mature RBCs). Under steady conditions reticulocytes are about1% of total circulating RBCs . A normal BM replete with Fe, folate, and Cbi canincrease erythropoiesis in response to EPO about5-fold in adults and 7- to 8-fold in children.CAUSES OF NUTRTIONAL ANEMIASInadequate intak

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