Medicine an Surgery notes

Apr 25th, 2015
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HEPATITISObjectivesDefine hepatitisList the causes of hepatitisDiscuss the clinical presentation of the variousviral causesOutline the investigations neededDefinitionsHepatitis- a general term that refers toinflammation of the liver.- may result from various infectious andnoninfectious etiologies.Infectious etiologiesviral, bacterial, fungal, parasitic organisms.viral hepatitis is the most common-HAV,HBV ,HCV,HDV,HEV.HAV, HBV, and HCV cause more than 90% of casesof acute viral hepatitis.HBV and HCV can also lead to chronic infection.Infectious etiologiesPatients who are chronically infected may go onto develop cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.Chronic hepatitis carriers remain infectious andmay transmit the disease for many years.Noninfectious hepatitismedicationstoxinsautoimmune disorders.HISTORY-Infectious hepatitisClinical presentation varies from person to personas well as with the etiology of infection.Some entirely asymptomatic or only mildlysymptomatic.Others may present with rapid onset of fulminanthepatic failure.Classic presentation ofinfectious hepatitisInvolves 4 phasesPhase 1 - Viral replication :asymptomatic.-Laboratory studies: serologic and enzymemarkers of hepatitis.Phase 2 - Prodromal phase: anorexia, nausea,vomiting, alterations in taste, arthralgias, malaise,fatigue, urticaria, and pruritus.-often diagnosed as GE/ URTI

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