Medicine an Surgery notes

Apr 25th, 2015
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DIARRHOEA IN CHILDRENEU, Department of PaediatricsDefinition and TypesDiarrhoea is the passage of loose or watery stools atleast three times in 24 hoursEpidemiology Diarrhoeal disease is the second leading causeof death in children under five years old, and isresponsible for killing around 760 000 childrenevery year. Globally, there are nearly 1.7 billion cases ofdiarrhoeal disease every year. Children who are malnourished or haveimpaired immunity as well as people living withHIV are most at risk of life-threateningdiarrhoea.Epidemiology Worldwide, 780 million individuals lack accessto improved drinking-water and 2.5 billion lackimproved sanitation In developing countries, children under 3 yrs oldexperience on average 3 episodes of diarrhoeaevery year. Each episode deprives the child of the nutritionnecessary for growth. Diarrhoea is a majorcause of malnutrition, and malnourishedchildren are more likely to fall ill from diarrhoea.EtiologyEtiology Viral : Rota Virus, Adenovirus, Norwalk Agent Bacterial : V. Cholera, E. Coli (ETEC, EHEC,EPEC, EAggEC, EIEC), Salmonella, Shigella,Campylobacter Fungal: Candida Parasitic Infection : Giardia Lamblia,Cryptosporidium, E.histolytica Diet : Food Poisoning, Food allergyEtiology Drugs : Laxatives, Sorbitol, Antacids,Lactulose, Theophylline, Antibiotics etc In developing countries, enteric bacteriaand parasites are more prevalent thanviruses and ty

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