Medicine an Surgery notes

Apr 25th, 2015
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Module 3:Management of Patients onAntiretroviral TherapyUnit 4: HIV Infection and Useof Antiretroviral Treatment inChildrenGOALTo impart knowledge on HIVinfection in Children and the use ofARV drugsOBJECTIVESDescribe the epidemiology and naturalhistory of HIV in childrenDescribe the diagnosis and staging of HIVinfection in childrenDescribe when and how to initiate,change and stop ARTDescribe ARV monitoring in childrenDescribe drug related side effects andinteractionsDescribe adherence problems andsupportEpidemiology1 million live births in Kenya annually10% born to HIV infected mothersWithout PMTCT 30% of these become infectedAbout 20,000 neonates acquire HIV annuallyAbout 10,000 (50%) die within first 2 yearsHIV has made a huge impact on infant mortalityChildren form ~10% of all HIV infectedpopulation in Kenya (150,000)Epidemiology: TransmissionOver 90%of HIV infection ininfants and young children isfrom HIV positive mothers(Mother to Child Transmission-MTCT)Epidemiology:TransmissionOther routes Sexual Contaminated needles andinstruments Transfusions of contaminated bloodand blood productsSpecial risk sicklers andhaemophiliacsFactors Facilitating MCTIncreased by: MaternalRecent maternal HIV infectionHigh viral loadsLow CD 4 countsAIDS/late stage diseaseObstetric factorsDelivery pra

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