Medicine an Surgery notes

Apr 25th, 2015
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Module 4:ARV Drugs in SpecialCircumstancesUnit 1 Post Exposure ProphylaxisFollowing Occupational ExposureObjectives1.2.3.4.Describe the risk of transmission of HIV fromoccupational exposures.Describe non-pharmacologic interventionsthat can reduce the risk transmission of HIV.Describe the rationale for the use ofantiretroviral drugs to reduce the risk oftransmission of HIV in this setting.Describe the steps that should be taken in theevent of known occupational exposure to HIV.BackgroundHealth care workers (HCWs) are at risk ofexposure to HIV through contact with bloodand other body fluids containing HIVThrough needle stick injuries and injuries by othersharp objectsOn non-intact skin and mucous membranesIn these settings steps should be taken toreduce the risk of transmission of HIVWays to MinimizeOccupational Exposures to HIVUniversal PrecautionsAll blood should be treated as if contaminatedwith HIV/Hepatitis B & C Use appropriate barriersCare with sharpsGlovesGownsGogglesMinimize blind surgical proceduresAvoid recapping needlesSafe disposal of sharpsUniversal HBV vaccination of non-immune HCWsand at risk groupsRisk of HIV Transmission DuringOccupational and Non-occupationalExposureExposureProbability of disease acquisition(%)Needle stick injury0.0032Mucous membrane(0.32)(0.09)Non-intact skin exposure(< 0.09)Hepatitis B (infectious sou

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