Medicine an Surgery notes

Apr 25th, 2015
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Hydorp fetalis.Hydrop fetalis Hydrops fetalis is a condition in the fetuscharacterized by an abnormal collection of fluid withat least two of the following: Edema(fluid beneath the skin, more than 5 mm). Ascites(fluid in abdomen) Pleural effusion(fluid in the pleural cavity, the fluid-filled space thatsurrounds the lungs) Pericardial effusion(fluid in the pericardial sac, covering that surrounds theheart)Hydrop fetalis Hydrops fetalis is typically diagnosed duringultrasound evaluation for other complaintssuch as : Polyhydramnios Size greater than dates Fetal tachycardia Decreased fetal movement Abnormal serum screening Antenatal hemorrhageEtiology Hydrops fetalis is found in about 1 per 2,000births and is categorized as : Immune hydrops Nonimmune hydropsImmune hydrops Accounts for 10-20%of cases Maternal antibodies against red-cells of the fetuscross the placenta and coat fetal red cells which arethen destroyed (hemolysis) in the fetal spleen. The severe anemia leads to High-output congestive heart failure. Increased red blood cell production by the spleen and liverleads to hepatic circulatory obstruction (portalhypertension)Immune hydrops Anti-D, anti-E, and antibodies directed against otherRh antigens comprise the majority of antibodiesresponsible for hemolytic disease of the newborn .

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