Crisis Management Class Notes_23570255-Class-Notes-for-Modern-Physics-Part-2

Jul 29th, 2015
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Class Notes for Modern Physics, Part 2J. GunionU.C. Davis9D, Spring QuarterJ. GunionThe particle nature of matterMost of you are already convinced that matter is composed of particles,but it is useful to at least briefly recall how our current understanding arosehistorically.There were four major items in making this case:1. Around 1833, Faraday performed a series of electrolysis experiments.these established three basic things:(a) that matter consists of molecules and that molecules consist of atoms;(b) that charge is quantized, because only integral numbers of charges aretransferred between the electrolysis electrodes;(c) and that the subatomic parts of atoms carry positive and negativecharges.However, he was unable to directly determine the masses of thesesubatomic particles, but it seemed clear that they were related to theatomic weights that were known from chemistry.Also, the absolute size of the charge of these subatomic particles couldnot be determined from electrolysis only that charge was quantized.J. Gunion9D, Spring Quarter1Considerable time would pass before the next major input.2. Around 1897, Thomson identified cathode rays as something with thesame sign as the negative charges seen by Faraday.And, he found that all negative particles emitted from a cathode hadidentical e/me values, where e was the charge.He postulated that whatever this object was, it was probably a fundamentalconstituent of matter. We know it as the e

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