MBchB study guide

Apr 28th, 2015
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ABNORMAL UTERINE BLEEDINGDefinitionAbnormal uterine bleeding includes abnormal menstrual bleeding and bleeding due to other causes such as pregnancy, systemic disease, or cancer. It can be caused by a wide variety of local and systemic disease or related to drugsPatterns of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding The standard classification for patterns of abnormal bleeding recognizes 7 different patterns. (1) Menorrhagia (hypermenorrhea) It is heavy or prolonged menstrual flow. The presence of clots may not be abnormal but signify excessive bleeding. "Gushing" or "open-faucet" bleeding is always abnormal. Submucous myomas, complications of pregnancy, adenomyosis, IUDs, endometrial hyperplasias, malignant tumors, and dysfunctional bleeding are causes of menorrhagia. (2) Hypomenorrhea (cryptomenorrhea) It is unusually light menstrual flow, sometimes only spotting. An obstruction such as hymenal or cervical stenosis may be the cause. Uterine synechiae (Asherman's syndrome) can be causative and are diagnosed by a hysterogram or hysteroscopy. Patients receiving oral contraceptives occasionally complain of light flow and can be reassured that this is not significant. (3) Metrorrhagia (intermenstrual bleeding) It is bleeding occurring at any time between menstrual periods. Ovulatory bleeding occurs at midcycle as spotting and can be documented with basal body temperatures. Endometrial polyps and endometrial cervical carcinomas are pathologic causes. In recent years,

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