The Origin of Reform and Secularism in the Middle East

May 1st, 2015
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The paper expounds on the the Origin of reform and secularism in the Middle East and the fundamental cultural changes that occurred in the Ottoman Empire with the expansion of the European.

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The Origin of Reform and Secularism in the Middle EastNameProfessorCourseDateThe Origin of Reform and Secularism in the Middle EastThe reform and secularism in the Middle East took place with the changes in the changes in the powers of the government. A fundamental cultural change occurred in the Ottoman Empire with the expansion of the European. The military defeats contributed greatly to the changes in the era, when the Imperial Ottoman state became experienced less success than before (Quataert, 2008). In the midst of the reforms and secularism, the Ottomans military balance shifted because they lost their superiority in the military technology (Tuck, 2008). The failure of the Ottomans army to take Vienna opened a venue for the reforms and secularism because the Europeans learnt of the weaknesses with the Ottomans Empire, and the public officials accepted new reforms in the military, political, and social areas.The reign of Sultan Suleyman registered the highest authority in the Ottoman, characterized with highest development of the Empires government. The sultans in the Ottoman preserved the traditional social division between the minority ruling class and the large subject class (Quataert 2008). However, the signs of weakness in the ruling system signaled a potential decline. The classical system faced internal and external challenges, which led to political, social, financial, and the military transformations of the empire. The long

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