Hummer-Spread Spectrum

May 5th, 2015
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Due to the mobility of mobile terminal the received signal is rapidly fluctuating causing changes in the multiple signal components arriving via different path. And the fluctuation of signal amplitude is referred to as small scale fading. Here we are going to see effect of Multipath and doppler in wireless medium.

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hummerAnswer Key of Spread Spectrum ECE-432(16th July S1 shift)Ans.1(a)Due to the mobility of mobile terminal the received signal is rapidly fluctuating causing changes in the multiple signal components arriving via different path. And the fluctuation of signal amplitude is referred to as small scale fading. Here we are going to see effect of Multipath and doppler in wireless medium.Rapid fluctuation of signal amplitude causes two effects. The first effect is caused due to the movement of the mobile terminal towards or away from the base station transmitter. It is called as the Doppler Effect.And the second effect is caused by the addition of the signals arriving via different paths is called as multipath effect.(b) Shadowing is caused by obstruction of the transmitted waves by, e.g., hills, buildings, walls, and trees, which results in more or less strong attenuation of the signal strength. Compared to fast fading, longer distances have to be covered to signicantly change the shadowing constellation. The varying signal strength due to shadowing is called slow fading and can be described by a log-normal distribution .(c) Multi-Carrier Code Division Multiple Access (MC-CDMA) is a multiple access scheme used in OFDM-based telecommunication systems, allowing the system to support multiple users at the same time.MC-CDMA spreads each user symbol in the frequency domain. That is, each user symbol is carried over multiple parallel subcarriers, but it is phase shifted

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