Chemistry Notes

May 5th, 2015
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Newton's laws are applied to bodies (objects) which are considered or idealized as a particle,[7] in the sense that the extent of the body is neglected in the evaluation of its motion, i.e., the object is small compared to the distances involved in the analysis, or the deformation[->0] and rotation of the body is of no importance in the analysis.

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Intermolecular Forces are very significant when dealing with liquids and solids.Three Types of Chemical BondsIonic BondsBetween Metal and NonmetalNonmetal takes electron of metal and forms anion, leaving the metal as a cation. The two ions then attract each otherCovalent BondsBetween Nonmetal and NonmetalThe two molecules share an electron pairMetallic BondsBetween Metal and MetalCharacteristics of MatterSolidsHave definite shapeNearly incompressibleUsually have higher density than liquidsAre not fluidDiffuse only very slowly through solidsHave an ordered arrangement of particles that are very close together; particles usually only have vibrational motionHave strong IMFs, but have low kinetic energiesLiquidsHave no definite shape (assume shapes of containers)Have definite volume (Very slightly compressible)Have high densityAre fluidDiffuse through other liquidsConsist of disordered clusters of particles that are quite close together; particles have random motionGasesHave no definite shape (fill containers completely)Are compressibleHave low densityAre fluidDiffuse rapidlyConsist of extremely disordered particles with a lot of empty space between then; particles have rapid, random motionHave high kinetic energies, but have weak IMFsIntermolecular Vs. IntramolecularIntramolecular forces (Chemical bonding) are the attractive forces between adjacent atoms within a moleculeIntermolecular forces (van der Waals forces) are the attractive forces

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