Respiratory System

May 23rd, 2016
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This is lecture notes covering the entirety of the topic. It outlines the The structure of the lungs as well as the Ventilation Mechanism.

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Lecture 19: The Respiratory SystemIn multicellular animals, the term refers to a collection of processes in which the animal:oAcquires and absorbs oxygen from the environment.oTransports oxygen to the individual cells of the body.oGenerates ATP using oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor (cellular respiration).oThe elimination of the metabolic waste CO2 .Large organisms have huge demands for gas exchange more than diffusion alone over the bodysurface can satisfy. Hence the need for specialized structures for gaseous exchange linked to acirculatory system.Respiratory System in HumansThe respiratory system in humans consists of a series of tubes through which air passes from the nasalpassages to the lungs and back.Fig .1 from http://www.med.umich.edu/1libr/aha/aha_respirat_art.htmBreathing is the movement of air into and out of the lungs. A breath of air enters through the nostrils intothe nasal cavities. The nasal cavities are lined with hairs that trap dust and other particles. The epithelialcells in the nasal cavities are lined with cilia and secrete mucous that moistens the air and collects debris.The cilia beat in unison creating a current in the mucous that carries trapped particles towards the back ofthe nasal cavity. The nasal cavity also has a rich blood supply that keeps the temperature relatively high,warming the air as it passes through.1From the nasal passage, the air flows through the pharynx to the larynx into the trach

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