Adaptive Response Essay: Health and Medical

Jun 29th, 2016
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Scenario 1: Jennifer is a 2-year-old female who presents with her mother. Mom is concerned because Jennifer has been "running a temperature" for the last 3 days. Mom says that Jennifer is usually healthy and has no significant medical history… Jack is a 27-year-old male who presents with redness and irritation of his hands. He reports that he has never had a problem like this before, but about 2 weeks ago he noticed that both his hands seemed to be really red and flaky… Martha is a 65-year-old woman who recently retired from her job as an administrative assistant at a local hospital. Her medical history is significant for hypertension, which has been controlled for years with hydrochlorothiazide… • Identify the pathophysiology of these disorders and include their associated alterations. Also consider adaptive responses to the alterations.

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Adaptive ResponseScenario 1Jennifer is suffering from an acute upper respiratory tract infection which is most likelyto be pharyngitis. It is caused by bacterial, viral and in rare cases fungal microbial agents. GroupA beta hemolytic Streptococcus species are the most common causes of pharyngitis with viralagents such as Adenoviruses, Rhinoviruses and Coronaviruses also commonly implicated. Onceinhaled, these pathogens upon breaching the various host barriers, invade the mucous membranesof the upper respiratory tract. The toxins they release coupled with the pyrogens on the bacterialcell wall stimulate a local inflammatory response mediated by both humoral and cellularimmunity.This results in various alterations of the mucosa that constitute signs of infection. Theaffected areas of the throat become inflamed leading to swelling and erythema informally calledStrep throat. This is compounded by tonsilar inflammation also called tonsillitis characterized byenlarged tonsils that make it difficult and painful to swallow food and also produce difficulty inbreathing. Involvement of the ear, acute otitis media, will see the tympanic membrane swell orbulge with distinctive re

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