OPERATING SYSTEMS SECURITY

Jun 30th, 2016
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The document contains short notes on operating systems security and brief explanations about what operating systems security is.

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OPERATING SYSTEMSSECURITYSecurity9.1 The security environment9.2 Basics of cryptography9.3 User authentication9.4 Attacks from inside the system9.5 Attacks from outside the system9.6 Protection mechanisms9.7 Trusted systems1The Security EnvironmentThreatsSecurity goals and threats2IntrudersCommon Categories1. Casual prying by nontechnical users2. Snooping by insiders3. Determined attempt to make money4. Commercial or military espionage3Accidental Data LossCommon Causes1. Acts of God-fires, floods, wars2. Hardware or software errors-CPU malfunction, bad disk, program bugs3. Human errors-data entry, wrong tape mounted4Basics of CryptographyRelationship between the plaintext and the ciphertext5Secret-Key Cryptography Monoalphabetic substitution each letter replaced by different letter Given the encryption key, easy to find decryption key Secret-key crypto called symmetric-key crypto6Public-Key Cryptography All users pick a public key/private key pair publish the public key private key not published Public key is the encryption key private key is the decryption key7One-Way Functions Function such that given formula for f(x) easy to evaluate y = f(x) But given y computationally infeasible to find x8Digital Signatures(b) Computing a signature block What the receiver gets9User AuthenticationBasic Principles. Authentication must identify:

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