Biology notes

May 8th, 2015
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Cell structure and organization Chloroplastso Site of photosynthesis where light energy is absorbedo Consist of grana which are stacked up to increase surface area for absorptionof lighto Only present in plant cells Cell membrane (plasma membrane)o Lipid bilayer that surrounds the cell, interspersed with protein moleculeo Presence of temporary poreso Selectively permeable Controls movement of substanceso Diffusion, osmosis and active transport can therefore take placeo Prevent outflowing of cytoplasmo Tonoplast Plasma membrane surrounding the vacuole Cell wallo Made of cellulose (a polysaccharide), and may be deposited with ligino Maintain cell turgidity, provide mechanical support, protect from mechanicaldamageo Freely permeable to water and most soluteso Only present in plant cells Cytoplasmo Protoplasm surrounding the nucleuso There are numerous organelles present in the cytoplasmo Organelle Specialized membrane bound structures Cell vacuoleo Fluid-filled space enclosed by a membraneo In animal cells, these are present as numerous small ones, and these areusually not permanento In plant cells, there is usually a large central vacuoleo Cell sap Fluid in vacuoles, contains sugars, mineral salts and amino acidso Tonoplast Membrane around the vacuole Nucleuso Nucleoplasm Small spherical mass of denser protoplasmo Nuclear membrane Nuclear envelopeo Found in the cytoplasmo Control activities of the c

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