Chapter 3 Notes

Jul 8th, 2016
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Lecture Notes generated from the following book: Biology, the Dynamic Science. Russell, Wolfe, Hertz and Starr. 2008. ISBN 978-0-534-24966-3

Word Count: 1261
Showing Page: 1/59
Biological Molecules:The Carbon Compounds of LifeChapter 33.1 Carbon Bonding Carbon chains and rings form the backbones ofall biological moleculesCarbon Bonding Organic molecules based on carbon Each carbon atoms forms 4 bonds Allows for a great variety of molecular shapesInorganic molecules do not have carbonp. 43Hydrocarbons Hydrocarbons - Molecules of carbon linked onlyto hydrogen Methane is the simplest hydrocarbon CH4 = 1 carbon + 4 hydrogensHydrocarbons Hydrocarbons can also have double or triplebonds between the carbonsHydrocarbons Other organic molecules in living organismscontain elements in addition to C and HCarbohydratesLipidsProteinsNucleic AcidsFour major classesof hydrocarbonsFunctional Groups Small, reactive groups of atoms attached toorganic molecules Their covalent bonds are more easily broken orrearranged than other parts of the molecules3.2 Functional Groups in BiologicalMolecules The hydroxyl group is a keycomponent of alcohols The carbonyl group is the reactivepart of aldehydes and ketones3.2 (cont.) The carboxyl group formsorganic acids The amino group acts as anorganic base The phosphate group is areactive jack-of-all-trades The sulfhydryl group works as amolecular fastenerFunctional GroupsTable 3-1a, p. 44Functional GroupsTable 3-1b, p. 44Animation: Functional groupsHydroxylCarboxylAminoSulfhydryl

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