cancer_chemotherapy

Jul 19th, 2016
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the various drugs used in the management of cancer are discussed

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CANCER CHEMOTHERAPY:INTRODUCTION Cancer is a disease characterized by a shift in the control mechanisms that governcell survival, proliferation, and differentiation.Cancer arises through a series of somatic alterations in DNA that result inunrestrained cellular proliferation. Most of these alterations involve actual sequencechanges in DNA (i.e., mutations).The genes most affected include oncogenes, tumour suppressor genes and genesinvolved in apoptosis (programmed cell death). The mechanisms of damage to thesegenes are the causative factors of cancer aetiology. Cells that have undergone neoplastic transformation usually express cell surfaceantigens that may be of normal fetal type, may display other signs of apparentimmaturity Such cells proliferate excessively and form local tumors that can compress or invadeadjacent normal structures.Oncogenes and proliferationOncogenes; These are also referred to as cancer genes. There are two major classes of cancer genes. The first class comprises genes thatdirectly affect cell growth either positively (oncogenes) or negatively (tumor-suppressorgenes). When these genes are activated in an uncontrolled manner, they lead to malignanttransformation of cells. They are initially present as proto-oncogenes (i.e. Precancer genes) until a mutationchanges them into active oncogenes. The oncogenes are involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and mutations andmakes them indep

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