genetic_engineering_and_gm_crops.

Aug 2nd, 2016
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genetic_engineering_and_gm_crops.

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Genetic Engineering and GM CropsOver the last 30 years, the field of genetic engineering has developed rapidly due to the greaterunderstanding of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) as the chemical double helix code from which genes aremade. The term genetic engineering is used to describe the process by which the genetic makeup ofan organism can be altered using recombinant DNA technology. This involves the use of laboratorytools to insert, alter, or cut out pieces of DNA that contain one or more genes of interest.Developing plant varieties expressing good agronomic characteristics is the ultimate goal of plantbreeders. With conventional plant breeding, however, there is little or no guarantee of obtaining anyparticular gene combination from the millions of crosses generated. Undesirable genes can betransferred along with desirable genes; or, while one desirable gene is gained, another is lost becausethe genes of both parents are mixed together and re-assorted more or less randomly in the offspring.These problems limit the improvements that plant breeders can achieve.In contrast, genetic engineering allows the direct transfer of one or just a few genes of interest,betwe

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