source rock generation petroleum

Aug 14th, 2016
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Source Rocks: Generation and Migration of PetroleumI.Introductiona. Majority of global petroleum associated with sedimentary rock environmentsi. Sandstones and carbonate sedimentary rocks = common reservoirsb. Limited occurrence of petroleum associated with igneous and metamorphic rock environmentsi. Crystalline reservoirs in contact with sedimentary strata or unconformitiesii. Examples of mantle-drived hydrocarbonsiii. Trace Hydrocarbons associated with chondrite meteorsc. Biogenic models of petroleum generation in sedimentary environments most favoredi. Majority of fossil organic matter stored in sedimentary rock environmentii. Thermal maturation of organic matter + time = process of petroleum generationiii. ~1020 g of carbon estimated to be stored in Earths crust (Sequestered)1. ~82% of carbon contained in limestones, dolomites, carbonate rocks2. ~18% contained in coal, oil and gasII.Modern Organic Processesa. The Carbon Cycle and Petroleum Generationi. Carbon Source: Weathering of crustal rocks; limestones, marble; metamorphismii. CO2 exchange from oceans-continents to atmosphereiii. Photosynthesis plant basis for food chainiv. Animal-plant food associations-life cycle processesv. Bacterial decay of plants/animals recycling of carbon into atmosphere (CO2, CH4)vi. Sediment Burial and Preservation = carbon storage in lithosphere1. Limestone2. Fossil fuels (petroleum, coal)3. REQUIREMENT: Preservation of organic carbon in fossil

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