trap seals petroleum generation

Aug 14th, 2016
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Petroleum Traps and SealsI.Overview / Definitionsa. Trap - geometric juxtaposition of impermeable "seal" strata over permeable reservoirstratab. Spill point - lowest elevation at which hydrocarbons can be contained in trapc. Closure - highest elevation at which the trap is sealedd. Fluid Distributioni. Density-driven bouyancy and vertical fluid segregation: water, oil, gas inascending order; presence or absence of any fluid a function of diagenetichistory, geologic construct, and thermal maturation/migration processii. OWC: "oil-water contact"iii. "Cap Gas"iv. Formation Waters1. Bottom water - water directly beneath oil, below OWC2. Edge Water - formation water in subjacent stratav. Tar Mat - dense, asphaltic hydrocarbon accumulations at the OWCII.Seals and Cap Rocksa. Seal - impermeable sediments or rock material that prevents migration of hydrocarbonsi. common - shale and crystalline evaporites1. high compaction and induration of shales increase brittle rheology, >fracture potentialii. seals may or may not have high porosity, requisite is impermeableiii. Leaky Seals - fracture degradation of capIII.Classification of Trapsa. Structural Trapsi. Fold

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