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Modification Of Porosity By DiagenesisAll porosity in freshly deposited sands is primary intergranular in nature, with the exception of insignificantamounts of intragranular porosity inherited in some grains. The very high initial porosities andpermeabilities of freshly deposited sands are drastically reduced by a series of changes that begin soonafter burial. These diagenetic processes transform the loose sediment into rock. After deposition, a sandconsists of a porous, non-equilibrium assemblage o detrital minerals. During burial, the sand is constantlychanging in composition, texture and porosity as it attempts to find equilibrium with respect to changingphysical and chemical conditions. The end product is a sandstone in equilibrium with the environment. (Itis doubtful that a sand can ever be said to be in perfect equilibrium with its ever-changing environment atany point short of a metamorphic condition, but it becomes progressively closer to equilibrium asdiagenesis proceeds.) The sandstone reaches this state via reduction of porosity by compaction andcementation, and by replacement of unstable detrital grains by stable authigenic minerals. The exactnature of the end product is a function of the original composition, texture and burial history of the rock.There are three basic diagenetic processes of importance in modifying primary intergranular porosity:1. mechanical compaction2. chemical compaction3. authigenic cementationDuring the burial history of m

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