hydrocarbon trap

Aug 14th, 2016
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Definitions and ConceptsMany terms are used to describe the various parts of a trap. The anticlinal trap, the simplest type, will beused as our reference ( Figure 1 , Nomenclature of a trap using a simple anticline as an example).Figure 1The highest point of the trap is the crest or culmination. The lowest point is the spill point. A trap may ormay not be full to the spill point. The horizontal plane through the spill point is called the spill plane. Thevertical distance from the high point at the crest to the low point at the spill point is the closure. Theproductive reservoir is the pay. Its gross vertical interval is known as the gross pay. This can vary fromonly one or two meters in Texas to several hundred in the North Sea and Middle East.Not all of the gross pay of a reservoir may be productive. For example, shale stringers within a reservoirunit contribute to gross pay but not to net pay ( Figure 2 , Facies change in an anticlinal trap, illustratingthe difference between net pay and gross pay). Net pay refers only to the possibly productive reservoir.Figure 2A trap may contain oil, gas or a combination of the two. The oil-water contact, OWC, is the deepest levelof producible oil within an individual reservoir ( Figure 3a , Fluid contacts within a reservoir in an oil-watersystem).Figure 3aIt marks the interface between predominately oil-saturated rocks and water-saturated rocks. Similarly,either the gas-water contact, GWC ( Figure 3b , Fluid co

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