drill pipe strengths

Aug 14th, 2016
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General IntroductionLike faults, joints result from a brittle response in rocks to stress. They are the most conspicuous andomnipresent secondary structure of rocks exposed at the earth's surface. In subsurface work, petroleumgeologists use the term "fractures" to refer to local ruptures of almost any kind that do not show enoughoffset to be called faults. Geologists in the field distinguish joints from faults in a similar fashion, i.e., onthe sole criterion that no visible displacement has occurred along the planes of parting. Ironically, the term"joint" was coined over two hundred years ago by workers in British stone quarries. These men believedthat the pleasingly regular, mutually perpendicular planes were those across which individual blocks ofrock were joined.Most often, joints occur in sets of semi-regular spacing. They may be fully developed and conspicuous orincipient ( Figure 1 , Illustration of joint face structures and nomenclature).Figure 1Frequently related to regional deformation patterns, joints are undoubtedly the source of reservoirfracturing in many areas. They may also result from non-orogenic stresses initiated by draping anddifferential compaction.Joints are generally classified by nomenclature that reflects particular mechanisms of formation.Extension joints (a subset of extension fractures) develop perpendicular to 3. Sheeting or exfoliationjoints are basically a type of extension jointing that develops parallel to the surface of

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