migration of oil and accumulation

Aug 14th, 2016
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Migration ProcessesAt present, migration is the most poorly understood and least measurable stage in the cycle ofgeneration, migration, and accumulation. Primary migration, which involves the expulsion of petroleumfrom the source rocks, is still a great mystery. Various models for primary migration have been proposed,although none appears to have all the answers.Secondary migration processes which involve the movement of petroleum through permeable layers(carrier beds) to the trap, are better understood. Nonetheless, it is still often very difficult to apply theseconcepts to the exploration of a particular area. Although secondary migration is governed primarily bybuoyancy, which tends to move petroleum upward by displacing heavier water, the tectonic andhydrodynamic regime also becomes important. Consequently, a wide variety of spatial arrangementsbetween source rocks and carrier/reservoir beds is possible ( Figure 1 ).Figure 1In older, more consolidated basins where there is little disruptive deformation, secondary migration occursupdip along extensive structural-stratigraphic ramps, that carry petroleum from the deep basin to thehinge areas or a regional arch ( Figure 2 ).Figure 2Long-distance migrations are possible in these cases, and large accumulations may result if the drainagearea is particularly large. However, secondary migration in young basins that are less consolidated ( andmay be overpressured ) involves more movement through fractures an

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