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PorosityPorosity is the first of two essential requirements for a rock to act as a hydrocarbon reservoir. It is simplya measurement of the pore or void spaces in a rock and is usually expressed as a percentage using theformula:Porosity (%) =100Porosity is often represented by the Greek letter phi ( ).Figure 1 shows the frequency of oil and gas reservoirs plotted against porosity. Almost all reservoirs haveporosities in a range of five to thirty percent with the majority falling between ten and twenty percent.Figure 1Any porosity less than five percent is very seldom commercial, and any porosity over thirty-five percent isextremely unusual. Porosity can be measured in the laboratory from cores and down the borehole usingwell logs, especially the sonic, density and neutron logs. Occasionally, it can be estimated from seismicdata.There are three main types of porosity: interconnected, connected and isolated. Interconnected porosityutilizes multiple pore throat passages to connect neighboring pores ( Figure 2 ).Figure 2Connected, or dead-end, porosity has only one pore throat passage (a) connecting with another porespace ( Figure 3 ).Figure 3Isolated porosity has no connections between pores ( Figure 4 ).Figure 4Interconnected and connected pores constitute effective porosity because hydrocarbons can move outfrom them. In the case of interconnected porosity, oil and gas flowing through the pore space can beflushed out by a natural or artific

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