stress strain

Aug 14th, 2016
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Basic ConceptsA rock is said to be in a state of stress when a force is applied to it. Earth stress is not simple, but involvestotal force-per-unit-area for a particular point. What makes measurement complex is the variety in thecomponents of force (with their changing magnitudes and directions) that can occur within a singlevolume of rock. Basically, however, we can think of stress as the three-dimensional intensity of forceacting at a specified point.For any moment in its total history, a rock has structure. It is also true that for any such moment, it issubject to stresses that tend to alter its properties. In reality, only in deep space would this same rock berelatively free of stress. On earth, the forces that compose stress can be divided into two main types: (1)body forces, which act at every point within the crust; and (2) surface forces (also called applied forces),which act only at interfaces between objects and, therefore, are defined only along surfaces.We can better understand how these forces act by considering a single clastic grain buried within theearth's crust. On this grain, two types of body forces act at all times: gravity and inertia. The force due togravity is called the lithostatic pressure, which results from the simple weight of overburden transferred bygrain-to-grain contact. If our particular grain becomes involved in diastrophism, two types of surfaceforces will also exert their influence on it: pressure forces, which act perpendicu

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