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Accident Analysis and Prevention 60 (2013) 1523Contents lists available at ScienceDirectAccident Analysis and Preventionjournal homepage: computational simulation study of the inuence of helmet wearingon head injury risk in adult cyclistsD.S. McNally , S. WhiteheadFaculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UKa r t i c l ei n f oArticle history:Received 7 September 2012Received in revised form 18 February 2013Accepted 10 July 2013Keywords:CycleHelmetSimulationHead injurya b s t r a c tEvidence for the effectiveness of cycle helmets has relied either on simplied experiments or complexstatistical analysis of patient cohorts or populations. This study directly assesses the effectiveness ofcycle helmets over a range of accident scenarios, from basic loss of control to vehicle impact, usingcomputational modelling.Simulations were performed using dynamics modelling software (MADYMO) and models of a 50%Hybrid III dummy, a hybrid cross bicycle and a car. Loss of control was simulated by a sudden turn of thehandlebars and striking a curb, side and rear-on impacts by a car were also simulated. Simulations wererun over a representative range of cycle speeds (2.014.0 m s1 ) and vehicle speeds (4.517.9 m s1 ).Bicycle helmets were found to be effective in reducing the severity of head injuries sustained in commonaccidents. They reduced the risk of an AIS > 3

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